Daily Email Newsletter (Sign-up Free)

Section 126 of Indian Evidence Act 1872: Professional Communications

Section 126 (Professional communications) under Chapter IX (Of Witnesses) of Part III (Production and Effect of Evidence) of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 —

❝No barrister, attorney, pleader or vakil shall at any time be permitted, unless with his client’ s e x press consent, to disclose any communication made to him in the course and for the purpose of his employment as such barrister, pleader, attorney or vakil, by or on behalf of his client, or to state the contents or condition of any document with which he has become acquainted in the course and for the purpose of his professional employment or to disclose any advice given by him to his client in the course and for the purpose of such employment:

 Provided that nothing in this section shall protect from disclosure ––

 (1) any such communication made in furtherance of any illegal purpose,
 (2) any fact observed by any barrister, pleader, attorney or vakil, in the course of his employment as such, showing that any crime or fraud has been committed since the commencement of his employment.

It is immaterial whether the attention of such barrister, pleader, attorney or vakil was or was not directed to such fact by or on behalf of his client.

 Explanation. –– The obligation stated in this section continues after the employment has ceased.

Illustrations

 (a) A, a client, says to B, an attorney –– “I have committed forgery and I wish you to defend me.”

 As the defence of a man known to be guilty is not a criminal purpose, this communication is protected from disclosure.

 (b) A, a client, says to B, an attorney –– “I wish to obtain possession of property by the use of a forged deed on which I request you to sue.”

 This communication, being made in furtherance of a criminal purpose, is not protected from disclosure.

 (c) A, being charged with embezzlement, retains B, an attorney, to defend him. In the course of the proceedings, B observes that an entry has been made in A’s account book, charging A with the sum said to have been embezzled, which entry was not in the book at the commencement of his employment.

 This being a fact observed by B in the course of his employment, showing that a fraud has been committed since the commencement of the proceedings, it is not protected from disclosure.❞



..............................................................

Notes:

The Indian Evidence Act, 1872 (Act No. 1 of 1872) was amended by:

01. Indian Evidence Act Amendment Act, 1872 (Act No. 18 of 1872);
02. Indian Evidence Act, 1872 Amendment Act, 1887 (Act No. 03 of 1887);
03. Indian Evidence Act, 1872 Amendment Act, 1891 (Act No. 03 of 1891);
04. Indian Evidence Act, 1899 (Act No. 05 of 1899);
05. Repealing and Amending Act, 1914 (Act No. 10 of 1914);
06. Repealing and Amending Act, 1919 (Act No. 18 of 1919);
07. Indian Evidence (Amendment) Act, 1926 (Act No. 31 of 1926);
08. Repealing and Amending Act, 1927 (Act No. 10 of 1927);
09. Amending Act, 1934 (Act No. 35 of 1934);
10. Government of India (Adaptation of Indian Laws) Order, 1937;
11. Repealing Act, 1938 (Act No. 01 of 1938);
12. Indian Independence (Adaptation of Central Acts and Ordinances) Order, 1948;
13. Repealing and Amending Act, 1949 (Act No. 40 of 1949);
14. Adaptation of Laws Order, 1950;
15. Part B States (Laws) Act, 1951 (Act No. 03 of 1951);
16. Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 1983 (Act No. 43 of 1983);
17. Criminal Law (Second Amendment) Act, 1983 (Act No. 46 of 1983);
18. Terrorist Affected Areas (Special Courts) Act, 1984 (Act No. 61 of 1984);
19. Information Technology Act, 2000 (Act No. 21 of 2000);
20. Indian Evidence (Amendment) Act, 2002 (Act No. 04 of 2003);
21. Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 2005 (Act No. 02 of 2006);
22. Information Technology (Amendment) Act, 2008 (Act No. 10 of 2009);
23. Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 2013 (Act No. 13 of 2013);
24. Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 2018 (Act No. 22 of 2018).

No comments:

Post a Comment

In comment with "Name/Url" option, only Name is mandatory to be filled.