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Sec 45, Banking Reg. Act 1949: RBI apply to Govt for banking suspension

Section 45 (Power of Reserve Bank to apply to Central Government for suspension of business by a banking company and to prepare scheme of reconstitution or amalgamation) under Part III (Suspension of Business and Winding up of Banking Companies) of the Banking Regulation Act 1949 :—

❝(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in the foregoing provisions of this Part or in any other law or any agreement or other instrument, for the time being in force, where it appears to the Reserve Bank that there is good reason so to do, the Reserve Bank may apply to the Central Government for an order of moratorium in respect of a banking company.

(2) The Central Government, after considering the application made by the Reserve Bank under sub-section (1), may make an order of moratorium staying the commencement or continuance of all actions and proceedings against the company for a fixed period of time on such terms and conditions as it thinks fit and proper and may from time to time extend the period so however that the total period of moratorium shall not exceed six months.

(3) Except as otherwise provided by any directions given by the Central Government in the order made by it under sub-section (2) or at any time thereafter the banking company shall not during the period of moratorium make any payment to any depositors or discharge any liabilities or obligations to any other creditors.

(4) During the period of moratorium, if the Reserve Bank is satisfied that—

 (a) in the public interest; or
 (b) in the interests of the depositors; or
 (c) in order to secure the proper management of the banking company; or
 (d) in the interests of the banking system of the country as a whole,

it is necessary so to do, the Reserve Bank may prepare a scheme—
  (i) for the reconstruction of the banking company, or
  (ii) for the amalgamation of the banking company with any other banking institution (in this section referred to as "the transferee bank").

(5) The scheme aforesaid may contain provisions for all or any of the following matters, namely: -

 (a) the constitution, name and registered office, the capital, assets, powers, rights, interests, authorities and privileges, the liabilities, duties and obligations of the banking company on its reconstruction or as the case may be, of the transferee bank;

 (b) in the case of amalgamation of the banking company, the transfer to the transferee bank of the business, properties, assets and liabilities of the banking company on such terms and conditions as may be specified in the scheme;

 (c) any change in the Board of Directors, or the appointment of a new Board of Directors, of the banking company on its reconstruction or, as the case may be, of the transferee bank and the authority of whom, the manner in which, and the other terms and conditions on which, such change or appointment shall be made and in the case of appointment of a new Board of Directors or of any Director the period for which such appointment shall be made;

 (d) the alteration of the memorandum and articles of association of the banking company on its reconstruction or, as the case may be, of the transferee bank for the purpose of altering the capital thereof or for such other purposes as may be necessary to give effect to the reconstruction or amalgamation;

 (e) subject to the provisions of the scheme, the continuation by or against the banking company on its reconstruction or, as the case may be, the transferee bank, of any actions or proceedings pending against the banking company immediately before the date of the order of moratorium;

 (f) the reduction of the interest or rights which the members, depositors and other creditors have in or against the banking company before its reconstruction or amalgamation to such extent as the Reserve Bank considers necessary in the public interest or in the interest of the members, depositors and other creditors or for the maintenance of the business of the banking company;

 (g) the payment in cash or otherwise to depositors and other creditors in full satisfaction of their claim-
      (i) in respect of their interest or rights in or against the banking company before its reconstruction or amalgamation; or
      (ii) where their interest or rights aforesaid in or against the banking company has or have been reduced under clause (f), in respect of such interest or rights as so reduced;

 (h) the allotment to the members of the banking company for shares held by them therein before its reconstruction or amalgamation whether their interest in such shares has been reduced under clause (f) or not, of shares in the banking company on its reconstruction or, as the case may be, in the transferee bank and where any members claim payment in cash and not allotment of shares, or where it is not possible to allot shares to any members, the payment in cash to those members in full satisfaction of their claim-
     (i) in respect of their interest in shares in the banking company before its reconstruction or amalgamation; or
      (ii) where such interest has been reduced under clause (f) in respect of their interest in shares as so reduced;

 (i) the continuance of the services of all the employees of the banking company(excepting such of them as not being workmen within the meaning of the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 (14 of 1947), are specifically mentioned in the scheme) in the banking company itself on its reconstruction or, as the case maybe, in the transferee bank at the same remuneration and on the same terms and conditions of service, which they were getting, or as the case may be, by which they were being governed, immediately before the date of the order of moratorium:
Provided that the scheme shall contain a provision that—
 (i) the banking company shall pay or grant not later than the expiry of the period of three years from the date on which the scheme is sanctioned by the Central Government, to the said employees the same remuneration and the same terms and conditions of service as are, at the time of such payment or grant, applicable to employees of corresponding rank or status of a comparable banking company to be determined for this purpose by the Reserve Bank (whose determination in this respect shall be final);
 (ii) the transferee bank shall pay or grant not later than the expiry of the aforesaid period of three years, to the said employees the same remuneration and the same terms and conditions of service as are, at the time of such payment or grant, applicable to the other employees corresponding rank or status of the transferee bank subject to the qualifications and experience of the said employees being the same as or equivalent to those of such other employees of the transferee bank:
 Provided further that if in any case under clause (ii) of the first proviso any doubt or difference as to whether the qualification and experience of any of the said employees are the same as or equivalent to the qualifications and experience of the other employees of corresponding rank or status of the transferee bank the doubt or difference shall be referred, before the expiry of a period of three years from the date of the payment or grant mentioned in that clause, to the Reserve Bank whose decision thereon shall be final;

 (j) notwithstanding anything contained in clause (i) where any of the employees of the banking company not being workmen within the meaning of the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 (14 of 1947), are specifically mentioned in the scheme under clause (i) or where any employees of the banking company have by notice in writing given to the banking company, or, as the case may be, the transferee bank at any time before the expiry of the one month next following the date on which the scheme is sanctioned by the Central Government, intimated their intention of not becoming employees of the banking company on its reconstruction or, as the case may be, of the transferee bank, the payment to such employees of compensation, if any, to which they are entitled under the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947, and such pension, gratuity, provident fund and other retirement benefits ordinarily admissible to them under the rules or authorisations of the banking company immediately before the date of the order of moratorium;

 (k) any other terms and conditions for the reconstruction or amalgamation of the banking company;

 (l) such incidental, consequential and supplemental matters as are necessary to secure that the reconstruction or amalgamation shall be fully and effectively carried out.

(6)(a) A copy of the scheme prepared by the Reserve Bank shall be sent in draft to the banking company and also to the transferee bank and any other banking company concerned in the amalgamation, for suggestions and objections, if any, within such period as the Reserve Bank may specify for this purpose.
 (b) The Reserve Bank may make such modifications, if any, in the draft scheme as it may consider necessary in the light of the suggestions and objections received from the banking company and also from the transferee bank, and any other banking company concerned in the amalgamation and from any members, depositors or other creditors of each of those companies and the transferee bank.

(7) The scheme shall thereafter be placed before the Central Government for its sanction and the Central Government may sanction the scheme without any modifications or with such modifications as it may consider necessary, and the scheme as sanctioned by the Central Government shall come into force on such date as the Central Government may specify in this behalf:

 Provided that different dates may be specified for different provisions of the scheme.

(7A) The sanction accorded by the Central Government under sub-section (7), whether before or after the commencement of section 21 of the Banking Laws (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act, 1963 (55 of 1963) shall be conclusive evidence that all that requirements of this section relating to reconstruction, or, as the case may be, amalgamation have been complied with and a copy of the sanctioned scheme certified in writing by an officer of the Central Government to be a true copy thereof, shall, in all legal proceedings (whether in appeal or otherwise and whether instituted before or after the commencement of the said section 21), be admitted as evidence to the same extent as the original scheme.

(8) On and from the date of the coming into operation of the scheme or any provision thereof, the scheme or such provision shall be binding on the banking company, or, as the case may be, on the transferee bank and any other banking company concerned in the amalgamation and also on all the members, depositors and other creditors and employees of each of those companies and of the transferee bank, and on any other person having any right or liability in relation to any of those companies or the transferee bank including the trustees or other persons Managing, or connected in any other manner with, any provident fund or other fund maintained by any of those companies or the transferee bank.

(9) On and from the date of the coming into operation or, or as the case may be, the date specified in this behalf in, the scheme, the properties and assets of the banking company shall, by virtue of and to the extent provided in the scheme, stand transferred to, and vest in, and the liabilities of the banking company shall, by virtue of and to the extent provided in the scheme, stand
transferred to, and become the liabilities of the transferee bank.

(10) If any difficulty arises in giving effect to the provisions of the scheme, the Central Government may by order do anything not inconsistent with such provisions which appears to it necessary or expedient for the purpose of removing the difficulty.

(11) Copies of the scheme or of any order made under sub-section (10) shall be laid before both Houses of Parliament, as soon as may be, after the scheme has been sanctioned by the Central Government, or, as the case may be, the order has been made.

(12) Where the scheme is a scheme for amalgamation of the banking company, any business acquired by the transferee bank under the scheme or under any provision thereof shall, after the coming into operation of the scheme or such provision, be carried on by the transferee bank in accordance with the law governing the transferee bank, subject to such modifications in that law or such exemptions of the transferee bank from the operation of any provisions thereof as the Central Government on the recommendation of the Reserve Bank may, by notification in the Official Gazette, make for the purpose of giving full effect to the scheme:

 Provided that no such modification or exemption shall be made so as to have effect for a period of more than seven years from the date of the acquisition of such business.

(13) Nothing in this section shall be deemed to prevent the amalgamation with a banking institution by a single scheme of several banking companies in respect of each of which an order of moratorium has been made under this section.

(14) The provisions of this section and of any scheme made under it shall have effect notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in any other provisions of this Act or in any other law or any agreement, award or other instrument for the time being in force.

(15) In this section, "banking institution" means any banking company and includes the Stale Bank of India or a subsidiary bank or a corresponding new bank.

Explanation.—References in this section of the terms and conditions of service as applicable to an employee shall not be construed as extending to the rank and status of such employee.❞




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Notes:

The Banking Regulation Act, 1949 (Act No. 10 of 1949) was amended by various other enactments subsequently as mentioned hereunder:

- Banking Companies (Amendment) Act, 1950 (No. 20 of 1950);
- Banking Companies (Amendment) Act, 1953 (52 of 1953);
- State Bank of India Act, 1955 (No. 23 of 1955);
- Jammu and Kashmir (Extension of Laws) Act, 1956 (No. 62 of 1956);
- State Bank of Hyderabad Act, 1956 (No. 79 of 1956);
- Banking Companies (Amendment) Act, 1956 (No. 95 of 1956);
- Banking Companies (Amendment) Act, 1959 (No. 33 of 1959);
- State Bank of India (Subsidiary Banks) Act, 1959 (No. 38 of 1959)
- Banking Companies (Second Amendment) Act, 1960 (No. 37 of 1960);
- Banking Companies (Amendment) Act, 1961 (No. 7 of 1961);
- Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Corporation Act, 1961 (No. 47 of 1961);
- Banking Companies (Amendment) Act, 1962 (No. 36 of 1962);
- Banking Laws (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act, 1963 (No. 55 of 1963);
- Banking Laws (Application to Co-operative Societies) Act, 1965 (No. 23 of 1965);
- Banking Laws (Amendment) Act, 1968 (No. 58 of 1968);
- National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development Act, 1981 (No. 61 of 1981);
- Banking Laws (Amendment) Act, 1983 (No. 1 of 1984);
- Industrial Reconstruction Bank of India Act, 1984 (No. 62 of 1984);
- National Housing Bank Act, 1987 (No. 53 of 1987);
- Banking Public Financial Institutions and Negotiable Instruments Laws (Amendment) Act, 1988 (No. 66 of 1988);
- Small Industries Development Bank of India Act, 1989 (No. 39 of 1989);
- Banking Regulation (Amendment) Act, 1991 (No. 54 of 1991);
- Banking Regulation (Amendment) Act, 1994 (No. 20 of 1994);
- Banking Regulation (Amendment) and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 2004 (No. 24 of 2004);
- Special Economic Zones Act, 2005 (No. 28 of 2005);
- Banking Regulation (Amendment) Act, 2007 (No. 17 of 2007);
- Banking Laws (Amendment) Act, 2012 (No. 4 of 2013);
- Banking Regulation (Amendment) Act, 2017 (No. 30 of 2017).

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