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Sec 2, SARFAESI Act 2002: Definitions

Section 2 (Definitions) under Chapter I (Preliminary) of the Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002 —

(1) In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,—

 (a) “Appellate Tribunal” means a Debts Recovery Appellate Tribunal established under sub-section (1) of section 8 of the Recovery of Debts Due to Banks and Financial Institutions Act, 1993 (51 of 1993);

 (b) “asset reconstruction” means acquisition by any asset reconstruction company of any right or interest of any bank or financial institution in any financial assistance for the purpose of realisation of such financial assistance;

 (ba) “asset reconstruction company” means a company registered with Reserve Bank under section 3 for the purposes of carrying on the business of asset reconstruction or securitisation, or both;

 (c) “bank” means— (i) a banking company; or (ii) a corresponding new bank; or (iii) the State Bank of India; or (iv) a subsidiary bank; or (iva) a multi-State co-operative bank; or (v) such other bank which the Central Government may, by notification, specify for the purposes of this Act;

 (d) “banking company” shall have the meaning assigned to it in clause (c) of section 5 of the Banking Regulation Act, 1949 (10 of 1949);

 (e) “Board” means the Securities and Exchange Board of India established under section 3 of the Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992 (15 of 1992);

 (f) “borrower” means any person who has been granted financial assistance by any bank or financial institution or who has given any guarantee or created any mortgage or pledge as security for the financial assistance granted by any bank or financial institution and includes a person who becomes borrower of a asset reconstruction company consequent upon acquisition by it of any rights or interest of any bank or financial institution in relation to such financial assistance or who has raised funds through issue of debt securities;

 (g) “Central Registry” means the registry set up or cause to be set up under sub-section (1) of section 20;

 (ga) “company” means a company as defined in clause (20) of section 2 of the Companies Act, 2013 (18 of 2013);

 (h) “corresponding new bank” shall have the meaning assigned to it in clause (da) of section 5 of the Banking Regulation Act, 1949 (10 of 1949);

 (ha) “debt” shall have the meaning assigned to it in clause (g) of section 2 of the Recovery of Debts Due to Banks and Financial Institutions Act, 1993 (51 of 1993) and includes—
   (i) unpaid portion of the purchase price of any tangible asset given on hire or financial lease or conditional sale or under any other contract;
   (ii) any right, title or interest on any intangible asset or licence or assignment of such intangible asset, which secures the obligation to pay any unpaid portion of the purchase price of such intangible asset or an obligation incurred or credit otherwise extended to enable any borrower to acquire the intangible asset or obtain licence of such asset;

 (i) “Debts Recovery Tribunal” means the Tribunal established under sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Recovery of Debts due to Banks and Financial Institutions Act, 1993 (51 of 1993);

 (ia) “debt securities” means debt securities listed in accordance with the regulations made by the Board under the Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992 (15 of 1992);

 (j) “default” means—
   (i) non-payment of any debt or any other amount payable by the borrower to any secured creditor consequent upon which the account of such borrower is classified as non-performing asset in the books of account of the secured creditor; or
   (ii) non-payment of any debt or any other amount payable by the borrower with respect to debt securities after notice of ninety days demanding payment of dues served upon such borrower by the debenture trustee or any other authority in whose favour security interest is created for the benefit of holders of such debt securities;

 (k) “financial assistance” means any loan or advance granted or any debentures or bonds subscribed or any guarantees given or letters of credit established or any other credit facility extended by any bank or financial institution including funds provided for the purpose of acquisition of any tangible asset on hire or financial lease or conditional sale or under any other contract or obtaining assignment or licence of any intangible asset or purchase of debt securities;

 (l) “financial asset” means debt or receivables and includes—
   (i) a claim to any debt or receivables or part thereof, whether secured or unsecured; or
   (ii) any debt or receivables secured by, mortgage of, or charge on, immovable property; or
   (iii) a mortgage, charge, hypothecation or pledge of movable property; or
   (iv) any right or interest in the security, whether full or part underlying such debt or receivables; or
   (v) any beneficial interest in property, whether movable or immovable, or in such debt, receivables, whether such interest is existing, future, accruing, conditional or contingent; or
   (va) any beneficial right, title or interest in any tangible asset given on hire or financial lease or conditional sale or under any other contract which secures the obligation to pay any unpaid portion of the purchase price of such asset or an obligation incurred or credit otherwise provided to enable the borrower to acquire such tangible asset; or
   (vb) any right, title or interest on any intangible asset or licence or assignment of such intangible asset, which secures the obligation to pay any unpaid portion of the purchase price of such intangible asset or an obligation incurred or credit otherwise extended to enable the borrower to acquire such intangible asset or obtain licence of the intangible asset; or
   (vi) any financial assistance;

 (m) “financial institution” means—
   (i) a public financial institution within the meaning of section 4A of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956);
   (ii) any institution specified by the Central Government under sub-clause (ii) of clause (h) of section 2 of the Recovery of Debts Due to Banks and Financial Institutions Act, 1993 (51 of 1993);
   (iii) the International Finance Corporation established under the International Finance Corporation (Status, Immunities and Privileges ) Act, 1958 (42 of 1958);
   (iiia) a debenture trustee registered with the Board and appointed for secured debt securities;
   (iiib) asset reconstruction company, whether acting as such or managing a trust created for the purpose of securitisation or asset reconstruction, as the case may be;
   (iv) any other institution or non-banking financial company as defined in clause (f) of section 45-I of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 (2 of 1934), which the Central Government may, by notification, specify as financial institution for the purposes of this Act;

 (ma) “financial lease” means a lease under any lease agreement of tangible asset, other than negotiable instrument or negotiable document, for transfer of lessor's right therein to the lessee for a certain time in consideration of payment of agreed amount periodically and where the lessee becomes the owner of the such assets at the expiry of the term of lease or on payment of the agreed residual amount, as the case may be;

 (n) “hypothecation” means a charge in or upon any movable property, existing or future, created by a borrower in favour of a secured creditor without delivery of possession of the movable property to such creditor, as a security for financial assistance and includes floating charge and crystallization of such charge into fixed charge on movable property;

 (na) “negotiable document” means a document, which embodies a right to delivery of tangible assets and satisfies the requirements for negotiability under any law for the time being in force including warehouse receipt and bill of lading;

 (o) “non-performing asset” means an asset or account of a borrower, which has been classified by a bank or financial institution as sub-standard, doubtful or loss asset,—
   (a) in case such bank or financial institution is administered or regulated by any authority or body established, constituted or appointed by any law for the time being in force, in accordance with the directions or guidelines relating to assets classifications issued by such authority or body;
   (b) in any other case, in accordance with the directions or guidelines relating to assets classifications issued by the Reserve Bank;

 (p) “notification” means a notification published in the Official Gazette;

 (q) “obligor” means a person liable to the originator, whether under a contract or otherwise, to pay a financial asset or to discharge any obligation in respect of a financial asset, whether existing, future, conditional or contingent and includes the borrower;

 (r) “originator” means the owner of a financial asset which is acquired by a asset reconstruction company for the purpose of securitisation or asset reconstruction;

 (s) “prescribed” means prescribed by rules made under this Act;

 (t) “property” means—
   (i) immovable property;
   (ii) movable property;
   (iii) any debt or any right to receive payment of money, whether secured or unsecured;
   (iv) receivables, whether existing or future;
   (v) intangible assets, being know-how, patent, copyright, trade mark, licence, franchise or any other business or commercial right of similar nature as may be prescribed by the Central Government in consultation with Reserve Bank;

 (u) “qualified buyer” means a financial institution, insurance company, bank, state financial corporation, state industrial development corporation, trustee or asset reconstruction company which has been granted a certificate of registration under sub-section (4) of section 3 or any asset management company making investment on behalf of mutual fund or a foreign institutional investor registered under the Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992 (15 of 1992) or regulations made thereunder, any category of non-institutional investors as may be specified by the Reserve Bank under sub-section (1) of section 7 or any other body corporate as may be specified by the Board;

 (w) “Registrar of Companies” means the Registrar defined in clause (40) of section 2 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956);

 (x) “Reserve Bank” means the Reserve Bank of India constituted under section 3 of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 (2 of 1934);

 (y) “scheme” means a scheme inviting subscription to security receipts proposed to be issued by a asset reconstruction company under that scheme;

 (z) “securitisation” means acquisition of financial assets by any asset reconstruction company from any originator, whether by raising of funds by such asset reconstruction company from qualified buyers by issue of security receipts representing undivided interest in such financial assets or otherwise;

 (zb) “security agreement” means an agreement, instrument or any other document or arrangement under which security interest is created in favour of the secured creditor including the creation of mortgage by deposit of title deeds with the secured creditor;

 (zc) “secured asset” means the property on which security interest is created;

 (zd) “secured creditor” means—
   (i) any bank or financial institution or any consortium or group of banks or financial institutions holding any right, title or interest upon any tangible asset or intangible asset as specified in clause (l);
   (ii) debenture trustee appointed by any bank or financial institution; or
   (iii) an asset reconstruction company whether acting as such or managing a trust set up by such asset reconstruction company for the securitisation or reconstruction, as the case may be; or
   (iv) debenture trustee registered with the Board appointed by any company for secured debt securities; or
   (v) any other trustee holding securities on behalf of a bank or financial institution, in whose favour security interest is created by any borrower for due repayment of any financial assistance.

(ze) “secured debt” means a debt which is secured by any security interest;

 (zf) “security interest” means right, title or interest of any kind, other than those specified in section 31, upon property created in favour of any secured creditor and includes—
   (i) any mortgage, charge, hypothecation, assignment or any right, title or interest of any kind, on tangible asset, retained by the secured creditor as an owner of the property, given on hire or financial lease or conditional sale or under any other contract which secures the obligation to pay any unpaid portion of the purchase price of the asset or an obligation incurred or credit provided to enable the borrower to acquire the tangible asset; or
   (ii) such right, title or interest in any intangible asset or assignment or licence of such intangible asset which secures the obligation to pay any unpaid portion of the purchase price of the intangible asset or the obligation incurred or any credit provided to enable the borrower to acquire the intangible asset or licence of intangible asset;

 (zg) “security receipt” means a receipt or other security, issued by a asset reconstruction company to any qualified buyer pursuant to a scheme, evidencing the purchase or acquisition by the holder thereof, of an undivided right, title or interest in the financial asset involved in securitisation;

 (zh) “sponsor” means any person holding not less than ten per cent. of the paid-up equity capital of a asset reconstruction company;

 (zi) “State Bank of India” means the State Bank of India constituted under section 3 of the State Bank of India Act, 1955 (23 of 1955);

 (zj) “subsidiary bank” shall have the meaning assigned to it in clause (k) of section 2 of the State Bank of India (Subsidiary Banks) Act, 1959 (38 of 1959).

(2) Words and expressions used and not defined in this Act but defined in the Indian Contract Act, 1872 (9 of 1872) or the transfer of Property Act, 1882 (4 of 1882) or the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956) or the Securities and Exchange Board of India Act 1992 (15 of 1992) shall have the same meanings respectively assigned to them in those Acts.





Extra Notes for Readers

(1) Section 2 of SARFAESI Act, 2002 was modified by the Enforcement of Security Interest and Recovery of Debts Laws and Miscellaneous Provisions (Amendment) Act, 2016 (Act 44 of 2016) (w.e.f. 1-Sep-2016).

(2) Section 2 of SARFAESI Act, 2002 was modified by the Enforcement of Security Interest and Recovery of Debts Laws (Amendment) Act, 2012 (Act 1 of 2013) (w.e.f. 15-Jan-2013).

(3) Section 2 of SARFAESI Act, 2002 was modified by the Enforcement of Security Interest and Recovery of Debts Laws (Amendment) Act, 2004 (Act 30 of 2004) (w.e.f. 11-Nov-2004).

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