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Section 197, Contract Act 1872: Ratification May Be Expressed Or Implied

Section 197 under the Chapter X (Agency - Appointment and authority of agents) of the Contract Act, 1872 of India - 'Ratification may be expressed or implied', is reproduced hereunder:—

Ratification may be expressed or may be implied in the conduct of the person on whose behalf the acts are done.


(a) A, without authority, buys goods, for B. Afterwards B sells them to C on his own account; B's conduct implies a ratification of the purchase made for him by A.

(b) A, without B's authority, lends B's money to C. Afterwards B accepts interests on the money from C. B's conduct implies a ratification of the loan.”

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