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Main Functions Of The Central/Apex Bank Of India i.e. Reserve Bank Of India (RBI)

o The Reserve Bank of India was established on April 1, 1935 in accordance with the provisions of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934.
o The Central Office of the Reserve Bank was initially established in Calcutta but was permanently moved to Mumbai in 1937.
o The Central Office is where the Governor sits and where policies are formulated.
o Though originally privately owned, since nationalisation in 1949, the Reserve Bank is fully owned by the Government of India.

Preamble  The Preamble of the Reserve Bank of India describes the basic functions of the Reserve Bank as:

"to regulate the issue of Bank notes and keeping of reserves with a view to securing monetary stability in India and generally to operate the currency and credit system of the country to its advantage; to have a modern monetary policy framework to meet the challenge of an increasingly complex economy, to maintain price stability while keeping in mind the objective of growth."

Main Functions —

Monetary Authority:
o Formulates, implements and monitors the monetary policy.
o Objective: maintaining price stability while keeping in mind the objective of growth.

Regulator and supervisor of the financial system:
o Prescribes broad parameters of banking operations within which the country's banking and financial system functions.
o Objective: maintain public confidence in the system, protect depositors' interest and provide cost-effective banking services to the public.

Manager of Foreign Exchange:
o Manages the Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999.
o Objective: to facilitate external trade and payment and promote orderly development and maintenance of foreign exchange market in India.

Issuer of currency:
o Issues and exchanges or destroys currency and coins not fit for circulation.
o Objective: to give the public adequate quantity of supplies of currency notes and coins and in good quality.

Developmental role:
o Performs a wide range of promotional functions to support national objectives.

Related Functions:
o Banker to the Government: performs merchant banking function for the central and the state governments; also acts as their banker.
o Banker to banks: maintains banking accounts of all scheduled banks.




Note for readers: For more detailed information, please refer the RBI Publication - Reserve Bank of India: Functions and Working.

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